to create chords we need to first find the scale of the root note.

for exampe if we want to work out a c major chord then we need the c major scale


to then work out the chord we need to have a formuler

for a major chord we take the first the thrid and the fith. the chord would be C E G. to create a minnor we need to take the third not and phlaten it this would then be C Eb G.

this imege below shows all of the chord formulers


scales minnor and major

a scale is made up of 7 musical notes and the 8th being the root note but an octive higher meaning a double in frequency to the first original note.

to find a scale you need to know the formuler to add to the notes

for a major scale you need to use they key of TTSTTTS. the t standing for tone up and the s for semi tone up.

for a minnor scale it changes to TSTTSTT.

a faster way to do this is to use the circle of fiths. this image below shows the circle of fiths this gives us how many sharpes and or plats are in the scale refering to the major scale. 



key signitures

A key signature is normally found directly after the clef symbol, it determines the set notes that are to be played higher or lower than the corresponding natural notes. this will stay the same until the end of the piece unless there is a key change. the image below shows the time signature at the start of a piece of music.

to work out the key signature of a song we need to know how many Sharpe’s or flats are in a given scale. to do this we can either work out each scale to find it out or we can use the circle of fifths. the image below shows the circle of fifths with this it shows us how many Sharpe’s or flats are in a key and what they are so it can be wrote down.

for example if we wanted to know what notes are in the key of D thenw e can look for the note D and see that there is a G and a D in the key and scale.


Time signitures

time signatures determine how many notes are in a bar on the stave. with ought the time signature the performers would be out of time with each outer. the top value how many beats are in each measure in the case of this image there are 4 beats in the bar. the bottom number tells us indicates the note value which represents one beat.

the time signature can also give the feel of the music such as if the song is in 3/4 it gives it a swing feel which is often associated with a waltz.

This is an example of a bar that works with 4/4 with 4 crochets worth 4 beats.


notes on a stave

the next piece of information needed when working with notes is the pitch of the note when placed on the stave. a stave is shown below this is what music is placed on so that we can work with the time signature and pitch of the note.

to work out the notes on the stave we first need to work out the clef that is at the beginning of the stave. there are to main clefs the bass and the treble. when the clef changes the notes on the stave change

the image below shows the notes that can be found on the stave for both the bass and the treble clef.

there are many different ways to remember the note pitches. for the treble clef you can use this method of “every good boy deserves football” take the first letter of each word and this gives you the notes for on the line. for the notes in the spaces use the word “FACE”


as you may already know these are not the only notes we have there are also all of the sharps and flats of these notes. when a  note is sharpened it goes up a semi tone and if it is flattened then it is lowered by a semi tone.












Note values

Note values are how we can count the beats in a bar for the time signature. if note values are not used correctly the time signature will not work and the band members will not play in time or the right notes.Image

this is a table to show all of the note values and including the linked rest notes.

the first is a whole note also known as a semibreve this is worth 4 beats

the second is a half note also known as a minim this is worth 2 beats

the third is a quarter note also known as a crotchet is worth 1 beat

the fourth is a eighth note also known as a quaver is worth 1/2 of a beat

the last is a sixteenth note also known as a semiquaver is worth 1/4 of a beat

we can tell the note by using the head, stem and tail of the note the image below this shows the were they can be located.